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Showing posts from 2010

Auditory Prompting Systems to Reduce Problem Behaviour

Results of this study confirm self-operated auditory prompting systems to be a socially valid function-based intervention for use in public community settings with
students with moderate mental retardation who have attention- or escape-maintained behavior when the prompts provide functionally equivalent reinforcement. This study
expands the literature on self-operated auditory prompting systems by matching the prompts to the function of problem behavior and confirming the social validity of the
intervention by including nondisabled coworkers.

Although previous studies (Alberto et al., 1999; Davis et al., 1992) documented that self-operated auditory prompts were an effective intervention for the reduction of
problem behavior in public community settings for students with moderate mental retardation, the function of behavior was not determined prior to intervention. It was unclear if the prompts inadvertently achieved functional equivalence or if stimuli other than the prompts were responsib…

Contingency Mapping

Contingency mapping is a new type of visual support strategy that has not been reported in the research literature to date (Brown, 2004). Contingency maps are graphic (i.e., pictorial) representations of the environment–behavior relationships inherent in PBS plans that involve FET. The aim of a contingency map is to make a behavior support plan more transparent by graphically depicting both the current and the alternative antecedent–behavior–consequence pathways related to the problem behavior. As such, contingency maps must represent all of—and the relationships between—the following components: (a) the common antecedent that precedes both the problem and the replacement behavior, (b) the topography of both the
problem and alternative behavior, (c) the functional reinforcer that will be provided contingent on alternative behavior, and (d) the previously available functional reinforcer that will no longer be provided contingent on problem behavior.

Brown, K. & Mirenda, P (2006). C…

Classroom Strategies for FASD

Classroom Strategies (this list is a start)

Work with student’s developmental age not his chronological age

• Repeat, repeat, repeat. Repeat, re-teach, repeat, reteach. Adapt the curriculum expectations
• If she repeatedly has outbursts look for the inciting stimuli and steer her away from them
• Alternate times of calm with activity, mini breaks for “brain gym” activities could be helpful
• Reduce stimuli in classroom. Have him looking at a blank wall up near you, not a colourful display
• Use a ruler, paper to cover everything except what is being read at that moment
• Colourful, attractive displays are very, very distracting for children with fasd. Low stimulus works
• Be prepared to handle clothes that itch (distract) — turn t-shirt inside out and tell parent/caregiver
• Figure out what she is good at and build on these functional skills
• Hands-on learning
• Small class size if possible
• Minimize transitions and prepare him for them in advance, “we are going to get out the red b…

Strategies for FASD

Whole School Strategies (this represents a minimum)

• All staff in the school trained to understand how fasd affects students
• Substitute personnel trained to understand and deal with students with fasd
• Emergency support for substitute personnel and students if “the wheels fall off.”
• Teachers and aides with realistic expectations of functional development
• Ideal staff will have nurturing, flexible personalities and a sense of humour
• Full-time Educational Assistants
• Make student records easily accessible (understandable) to professionals within privacy limits
• Whole school behaviour expectations, eg. Tribes ™ or “With All Due Respect”
• Mark boundaries on floors, hallways if inappropriate touching and poking is a problem
• Direct supervision of all meals, snacks, recess, bathrooms, on the bus – 24/7 supervision
• Structure program as much as possible, no surprises, structure all routines and be consistent
• Buddy Program of fasd-affected student with unimpaired peer
• Direct supervision,…

FASD Reflections

FASD the preventable disability. Working with people with FASD can be extremely challenging. Not only do they have neurological deficits but social and learning difficulites as well.

Compromised executive functioning D
Difficulty planning, predicting, organizing, prioritizing, sequencing, initiating, and following through. Difficulty setting goals, complying with contractual
expectations, being on time, or adhering to a schedule.

➤ Difficulty with memory
Information input, integration, forming associations, retrieval, and output. Difficulty learning from past experiences. Often repeat the same mistake over and over again in spite of increasingly severe punishment. Inconsistent memory or performance; may remember on Monday, forget by Tuesday.

➤ Difficulty with abstract concepts
Such as time, math, or money.

➤ Impaired judgment
Often unable to make decisions. Difficulty understanding safety and danger, friend and stranger, or differentiating fantasy from reality.

➤ Inability to generalize info…


Research has shown that for some students a method that could be more beneficial is to provide information that is to be presented in the near future rather than continually focusing on what has already been presented. Some students may engage in behaviours to escape or avoid due to the anxiety they experience when faced with new material. The important feature of priming is to target pivotal behaviours such as motivation, interest and attention.

Koegal et al. (1997) defines priming as an intervention which previews material or activities that a child is likely to have difficulties with. The goal of priming is to increase the child’s competence in a given learning field before inappropriate behaviour can surface. Material is presented as closely as possible to the way it will be presented the following day. The child is then prompted to respond to questions or evoke responses that they have already been prepared for.

Specific session lengths have not currently been assessed sys…

Helping Children With Autism Learn

When deciding a treatment program for an child with autism it can become very distressing and confusing. Lacking is the research in relation to long term treatment outcomes for the various treatments.. Don't get me wrong there is research in relation to treatment programs like ABA, drug therapies, Floortime, Dietary Modifications, Play Therapy, Behaviour Modification Programs, but not conclusive for all children with Autism. The point I am trying to make is that not one particular method may be the most beneficial for children with Autism. However it seems fairly clear that early intervention in key areas may be the most beneficial.

The core skill deficits for children with Autism may be referred to as "Autism Specific Learning Disablities"(Seigal, 2003). It is necessary to treat the individual symptoms not the diagnosis.
When preparing a treatment intervention it is vital to consider the following areas to determine the child's individual deficits or "learning st…