Expectancy-Value Theory investigates the individual’s expectation that they can succeed at a particular task and the value they place in engaging and completing the task (Urdan & Turner, 2005). Individuals must place value in a particular activity, as they may not be motivated to complete the activity even if they know they can succeed (Urdan & Turner, 2005). Students may experience this within a classroom where they do not value the particular subject even if they are capable of completing the tasks assigned. Therefore, it is the schools responsibility to investigate the areas the student values, which may increase the student’s motivation to stay in school to complete the topic of value.
Studies have found that teacher’s expectations and behaviours influenced student’s achievement expectations and course taking (Urdan & Turner, 2005). Expectations by school staff of defeated and discouraged students may affect learning outcomes of those students depending on whether the expectations were of a positive or negative nature. Staff perceptions also effect the student’s expectations and value of school (Urdan & Turner, 2005). Increasing the positive perceptions by staff toward defeated and discouraged learners may encourage these students to become re-engaged as positive relationships with staff can lead to positive outcomes.